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建筑外表面对流换热系数的CFD模拟

刘京 张文武 邵建涛
(哈尔滨工业大学市政环境工程学院,黑龙江哈尔滨150090)
 

摘要:建筑外表面的对流换热系数是建筑节能和城市环境模拟的重要参数.文中首先对萘升华技术实测的建筑楼顶水平表面对流换热系数与计算流体力学(CFD)的模拟结果进行对比,验证了CFD模拟技术在建筑外表面对流换热系数研究中的可适用性,然后利用CFD计算模型对单一建筑和5种建筑群的外表面对流换热系数进行模拟计算,结果表明:每一单体建筑表面的对流换热系数均是楼顶表面最大,背风墙表面最小,侧墙表面和迎风墙表面几乎相等;建筑之间的间距越大,建筑表面对流换热系数也越大;高层建筑会使本身及其附近建筑外表面的对流换热系数增大;在建筑群相互遮挡的情况下,风向的改变会导致建筑外表面对流换热系数的变化.也就是说,建筑外表面对流换热系数受到风速、风向、建筑密度及周围建筑高度的强烈影响.
 

关键词:建筑;外表面;对流换热系数;计算流体力学


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